AGENTS OF BIOTERRORISM PATHOGENS AND THEIR WEAPONIZATION PDF

Pathogens and Their Weaponization. Geoffrey Zubay. Columbia University Press . Agents of Bioterrorism. Google Preview. Pub Date: February Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Geoffrey Zubay and others published Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and their Weaponization }. [Book Review: Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and Their Weaponization.] Article in The Quarterly Review of Biology 81(3) · September with 5.

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Pathogenic Rickettsiae as Bioterrorism Agents | Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic

Abstract Because of their unique biological characteristics, such as environmental stability, small size, aerosol transmission, persistence in infected hosts, low infectious dose, and high associated morbidity and mortality, Rickettsia prowazekii and Coxiella burnetii have been weaponized.

Because of their unique biological characteristics environmental stability, small size, aerosol transmission, persistence in infected hosts, low infectious dose, high morbidity, and substantial mortalityR. In addition, humans serve as a mobile component of the louseborne typhus cycle, the behavior of which influences the pattern of typhus transmission. This new work offers a clear and thorough account of the threats posed by bioterrorism from the perspective of biologists.

Despite the variability in their clinical presentation, pathogenic rickettsiae cause debilitating disease, and any one of the highly virulent rickettsial species listed in table 1 could be used as a potential biological weapon. Zubay Limited preview – Initiating the proper treatment and curtailing outbreaks is the most crucial step, because prompt initiation of antibiotic treatment would prevent people from becoming ill and from dying.

Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

Considering that the median infective dose of R. The past and present threat of rickettsial diseases to military medicine and international public health.

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Furthermore, mass production weaponizarion rickettsial pathogens and the procedures required for their aerosolization are highly hazardous. However, production of highly purified, virulent, weapon-quality rickettsiae is a daunting task that requires expertise and elaborate, state-of-the art laboratory procedures to retain rickettsial survival and virulence. Rickettsiae are maintained in nature in their arthropod vectors, via transovarial and transstadial transmission, and human infection occurs accidentally through either a bite from the infected arthropod or contact with Rickettsia -laden feces.

Reply to Peiffer-Smadja, et al. John Bartlett and Bioterrorism.

Patients with this disease could serve as a long-term source of R. Several biological agents, including Rickettsia prowazekii and Coxiella burnetii —the causative agents of louseborne typhus and Q fever, respectively—have been weaponized and field-tested, with variable effectiveness, by the former Soviet Union, Japan, and the United States [ 23 ]. The conditions that allow for the coexistence of body lice and a susceptible population could be the starting point for a bioterrorism-initiated infection, because the release of the rickettsiae would set off a subsequent weaponizaton reaction.

Although the attributes of rickettsial pathogens that increase their potential for use as a biological weapon parallel those of other highly publicized, weaponized pathogens, realistically several compounding factors would make it very difficult to produce large quantities of highly purified weapon-quality rickettsiae.

In the present article, the pros and cons of weaponizing rickettsial pathogens and the potential of these pathogens in the bioterforism of bioterrorists are discussed, taking into consideration the biological attributes of this group of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria.

Please check for further notifications by email. Each chapter considers a particular pathogen from the standpoint of its history, molecular biology, pathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, weaponization, and defenses. Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal’s discretion. It furthers the University’s objective of pathogena in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

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Biological Attributes Ad Rickettsial Pathogens. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. The virulent strains of both C. Citing articles via Web of Science Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic.

Hospital-onset neonatal sepsis and mortality in low resource settings — will bundles save the day? These biological attributes would make the pathogenic rickettsiae desirable bioterrorism agents.

Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

Epidemics of louseborne typhus, plague, influenza, and dysentery have been important in the shaping of human destiny and have caused more deaths than all the wars throughout history [ 123—4 ]. The Search for Vaccines. Latest Most Read Most Cited Sequelae of congenital cytomegalovirus cCMV following maternal primary infection are limited to those acquired in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Because of their unique biological characteristics, such as environmental stability, small size, aerosol transmission, persistence in infected hosts, low infectious dose, and high associated morbidity and mortality, Rickettsia prowazekii and Coxiella burnetii have been weaponized. Preventive measures are complicated because of the lack of effective and safe rickettsial vaccines [ 11 ].

He has published more than research papers and several books, including Biochemistry ; Genetics ; and Origins of Life on the Earth and in the Cosmos.

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