BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. The theory of aesthetics started controversies over its legitimate existence as a fully developed science. Alexander Baumgarten was the first who used the word . On the 26th of May , German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten was born in Frankfurt (Oder), Brandenburg. He famously.

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Francisco Cannalonga rated it liked it May 03, As it happened, Baumgarten did not live to complete even the first of these three parts. To be sure, he often emphasizes the latter aspect of the value of art more than the former; for example, he writes. In nature everything is transitory, the passion of the soul and the sensation of the body: This gives him room to add an emphasis on our enjoyment of the arousal of our emotions to Baumgarten’s emphasis on our enjoyment of the perfection of sensible cognition.

The practical aim of the Critical Poetics was to elevate the tone of German popular theater and moderate the Baroque excesses of the upper-class theater by recommending the model of the classical French theater of Racine and Corneille. Just as little as the philosopher can discover the appearances of nature, without examples from experience, merely through a priori inferences, so little can he establish appearances in the beautiful world, if one can thus express oneself, without diligent observations.

Thus the experience of beauty becomes the sensation or sentiment Empfindung caused by the perfection of the object, rather than a clear but indistinct cognition of that perfection.

Beauty is an objective property, founded in the perfection of things, but it is also a relational rather than intrinsic property, for it is attributed to perfection only insofar as there are subjects like us who can perceive it sensorily. Wolff’s successors will struggle to avoid the limitations on the cognitive significance of aesthetic response that follow from his definition of pleasure as a kind of sense perception and the limits he places on the cognitive significance of sense perception.

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten

Alfxander first claims that Lessing fails to explain why beauty must be the first law of the alxeander arts. In other words, although as a rationalist metaphysician Mendelssohn maintains the formal distinction between the mind and the body the mind is simple and indivisible, while body is essentially divisibleas a psychologist and aesthetician he nevertheless sees them as in the most intimate interaction, with the perception of harmony by the body infusing the mind with a pleasant sense of harmony that then further stimulates the harmonious condition of the body.

Yet Wolff’s conception of perfection was broad enough to include successful adaptation to an intended zlexander, and thus in his analysis of our experience of architecture he emphasized our sense of the utility of structures as well as a sensory response to the kind of abstract form that could be considered an object of cognition.


Johann Joachim Winckelmann —the son of a cobbler from Prussia, studied at Halle and Jena, and became a school teacher. The arbitrary signs could also be called conventional. This is the side on which the faculty of approval touches demand or desire. This is Marcus Herz —Herder’s junior by three years. By introducing this baumgraten, he wants to emphasize that the experience of beauty or other aesthetic qualities is not actual knowledge, nor does it lead to specific desires and actions except perhaps the desire to be able to continue contemplating an object already found to have been beautiful.

Mendelssohn answers this question this by saying that. Now he has it!

Kaiser Van Beuren marked it as to-read Dec 08, The last paragraph of this is somewhat contorted: Belonging here are all the perfections of external forms, that is, the lines, surfaces, and bodies and their movements and changes; the harmony of the multiple sounds and colors; the order in the parts of a whole, their similarity, variety, and harmony; their transposition and transformation into other forms; all the vaumgarten of our soul, all the skills of our body.

Now if the world is to be a mirror of the wisdom of God, then we must encounter divine aims in it and perceive the means by which he attains these aims…. InKant declared that Baumgarten’s aesthetics could never contain objective rules, laws, or principles of natural or artistic beauty.

Once this has been established, it necessarily follows that whatever else these arts may include must give way completely if not compatible with beauty, and, if compatible, must at least be subordinate to it. Although Sulzer aesthstica remained at bottom a loyal Leibnizo-Wolffian, his introduction of Hume into German philosophical discourse prepared the way for Kant’s critique of that philosophy.

Then Sulzer makes a further distinction.

It is this liveliness rather than probative clarity which is the basis of aesthetic experience. In the case of rhetoric, moreover, there was a long tradition going back to antiquity of formulating rules for how persuasion can be achieved, and perhaps this made it seem like more of a science than an art to Mendelssohn.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Aledander. Influenced KantMeierSulzerWinckelmann. Moreover, this complex of human mental powers is productive of pleasure, through the sensible representation of perfection, in its own right. However, Sulzer also recognizes that art can be put to perverse and immoral use as well as healthy and good use, thus while art can contribute to morality both directly and indirectly we must also have an independent grasp of and commitment to the fundamental principles of morality in order to make sure that aesthetic experience’s natural tendency to morally good outcomes is not perverted.


I should prefer that only those be called works of art in which the artist had occasion to show himself as such and in which beauty was his first and ultimate aesyhetica. But it was the idea that aesthetic experience is a sensory apprehension of truth that dominated in Wolff’s most general statements. Open Preview See a Problem? The two volumes cover just under a third of Baumgarten’s original plan, although they may have included the most original part of the plan.

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten – Wikipedia

There he says that. While Wolff’s basic account of pleasure is problematic, he does provide a straightforward account of beauty. For example, a leader. According to Riedel, aesthetic theories can be divided into those employing the methods of Aristotle, Baumgarten, or Kames: Winckelmann then attributes the excellent of ancient, that is to say Greek, art to three factors: Georg Friedrich Meier aesthetoca the Metaphysics from Latin to German, an endeavour which – according to Meier – Baumgarten himself had planned, but could not find the time to execute.

There he wrote the tragedy Emilia Galotti and his famous plea for religious tolerance in the form of Nathan the Wisea play inspired by Mendelssohn. An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetryalthough not published untilwas clearly begun and largely written before the appearance of Winckelmann’s History in alexader Learn how your comment data is processed. The Gymnasies, where, sheltered by public modesty, the youths exercised themselves naked, were the schools of art….

Ordinarily, the faculty of cognition aims at truth, and the faculty of desire aims at action. Keep Exploring Britannica Aristotle. AfterWolff’s philosophy enjoyed an influence in most parts of Germany similar to that which the philosophy of Locke exercised in most quarters in Britain by then and in France beginning a decade or two later.

In fact, Mendelssohn’s analysis of our mixed emotions in the experience of tragedy is even more subtle than this, for a further aspect of it is that our knowledge that we are experiencing represented rather than real people allows us to enjoy sympathy with the perfections of the noble characters who are depicted rather alexandrr pity at their weaknesses or at the fate that overcomes them. Aristotle, ancient Greek philosopher aestnetica scientist, one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western….

Baumgarten’s new name for the discipline did not, however, signify a complete break with earlier philosophical views, that is, with alexznder perfectionist aesthetics of Leibniz and Wolff.