BIOPALIWA DRUGIEJ GENERACJI PDF
Biopaliwa Rodzaje biopaliw: stałe – wszelkiego rodzaju przetworzona i nieprzetworzona biomasa (drewno, zrębki, pelety, brykiety drzewne. Energia ze źródeł odnawialnych, w tym biopaliwa, jest istotnym Biopaliwa są istotne, ponieważ pomagają zmierzyć się drugiej generacji. Biopaliwa czy wyczerpaliśmy już wszystkie możliwości?, „CHEMIK”, , China Malinowski A., Perspektywiczne technologie biopaliw drugiej generacji na .
|Published (Last):||26 March 2015|
|PDF File Size:||3.76 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||8.83 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Biofuels in Storage and Operating Conditions
Moreover, such fuels should be used in dedicated vehicles only to eliminate negative environmental impacts. Methanol is a poison; it is toxic because of its decarboxylase taking place in the human body, which produces methanal formaldehyde. FAME are aggressive to rubber, to some plastics, and paint coats. Sugar in the form of glucose occurs in a few plant species only.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology drugkej Biotechnologyvol.
Methanol is frequently used in vehicles which are powered by fuel cells. The basic classification of biofuels is thus based on their state of matter.
The above discussion shows clearly that we are facing the growing trend to gsneracji compositions of the present-day motor fuels. As a rule, fuels should be stored in underground tanks while ground-based tanks should be provided with adequate thermal protection. That narrow boiling range of FAME may be the reason for operating problems, especially for engine starting at low ambient temperatures.
Regardless of the above, the fuel compositions of the future must satisfy the conditions as defined in LCA, inclusive of the WtW cycle for fuels. The following fuels have also been taken into consideration for stationary applications: The dominant content of glucose may be extracted directly from the plants and then rrugiej mild hydrolysis conditions are required. That situation results from relatively large and heavy molecules of triglycerides, as compared with deugiej oil hydrocarbon molecules.
The technologies for their production are based mainly on edible feed raw materials.
BIOPALIWA by Joanna Liber on Prezi
At high temperatures, on the other hand, i. October 30th Published: Laboratory analyses are provided to generacni the acceptable fuel storage time. Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties. Within spontaneous-ignition engines, efforts are being made to obtain and implement the following alternative fuels, based principally on biomass: The European classification specifies the following biofuels from the viewpoint of their state of matter:.
The bio-oil was produced by pyrolysis with ca. Conclusion The growing energy crisis and restrictions in the emissions of GHG create the need which is also boosted by regulatory provisions to use new types of gasoline components which are not derived from petroleum feedstocks, mainly to use biocomponents, such as ethanol, FAME, etc.
The consumption of biopqliwa as a propulsion agent for vehicles is relatively high, in particular that bioplaiwa from biomass. Biofuels from microalgae – A review of technologies for production, processing and extractions of biofuels and co-products.
Moreover, the following biofuel groups were defined for their specific uses:.
Biopaliwa by Aleksandra Ptak on Prezi
Production of 2nd and 3rd generation biofuels via thermochemical conversion — bio-oil from microalgae. What is essential, is the advantageous effect of transesterification of rapeseed oil since the average droplet size of rapeseed oil methyl esters is only twice that of diesel oil.
The most commonly used biocomponents are bioethanol and fatty acid methyl esters FAMEcalled the 1st generation biofuels. The course of the oxidation ageing process es of fuels which contain those components has not been established so far. The two groups of biofuels would be classified as advanced biofuels.
CO 2 emissions arising in the production process may be equal to zero when biomass is used in the conversion process since some volumes of CO 2 are absorbed by the plants in the course of their growth. Diesel oils and rapeseed oil esters are fuels obtained from different raw materials, therefore, they have different chemical compositions and different physico-chemical properties.
Based on the collected data, it is evaluated that the oxidative stability of FAME after one month of storage goes down below the quality requirements in some cases, thus leading to changes in the values of other parameters.
The raw material is to be converted into syngas which can be then processed into methanol.
Krzysztof Biernat, Biopaliwa drugiej generacji
The shares of the respective hydrocarbon groups in a diesel oil product are decisive for its physico-chemical properties and affect engine performance gdneracji toxicity of exhaust gases. Those changes result principally from the obligation being imposed on fuel manufacturers to add into fuel blends components obtained from renewable sources, with unstable compositions.
It is produced by petroleum distillation ddrugiej by secondary processing of heavy fractions distillation residue. Because of the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases GHGincluding first of all carbon dioxide, which is the critical factor of growth in the use of biofuels, the concept of third-generation biofuels was more specifically defined and the fourth-generation biofuels group was proposed.
The second-generation advanced biofuels include the following: The development of industrialization and a dynamically growing transport sector, has caused a sharp increase in fuel consumption over the last decades.