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English Oxford living dictionares. Help Center Find new research papers in: Results The analysis of Lithuanian history textbooks was followed by the identification of the most frequently used innovations.

The section reveals how at the beginning of the 20th century Lithuanian researchers observed certain similarities between Hittite and Lithuanian languages and tried to prove that Lithuanians are very close to Hittites Publishers were able to adapt to the requirements of the new educational curriculum. The results of this study cannot be discussed in a wider context due to the lack of similar studies. Currently, there is a large variety of new history textbooks available in Lithuania.

Hence, there are two types of textbooks: Only the most prominent innovations, which affected the history teaching and learning process, were presented. The three CDs on the history of Lithuania contain a total of 89 topics The authors portray daily life based on eight factors, which include 1 shelter, 2 food, 3 clothing, 4 health and hygiene, 5 life expectancy, child labour, and names, 6 standards and measurements, 7 money, 8 transportation.

Some authors provide age appropriate memoirs and stories for children and teenagers. Textbooks from Briedis pay special attention to historical sources and their analysis. The author of this study uses the content analysis method to summarise the innovations, which are presented in the history textbooks of five publishing houses: Traditionally, textbooks included information about capital cities or the largest towns and cities with the photographs of their various monuments.

The third stage of the concentric pattern includes grades eleven and twelve, which concentrate on the review of history from ancient times to the present days.


The second source is the painting by a 19th century artist depicting the Siege of Vienna at the Battle of Kahlenberg in About two decades ago textbooks rapidly absorbed new ideas and features in their layouts and contents. Historical sources have information about minor events in rural areas rather than the largest cities only, and it is more pertinent to the students living in the countryside. The textbook The Path: The primary objective of this study is to analyse the advances and innovations in Lithuanian history textbooks.

Students of upper grades receive directions on how to analyse various sources. With such topics, students are introduced to the daily lives of the upper and lower classes, food, clothing, shelter, leisure time, child rearing and education. Some textbook chapters start by explaining what students will learn by listing the most important questions to deal with. Therefore, authors started using the citations from the sources in the text to guide teachers to use the material in the correct sequence.

The present study focuses on older and newer textbooks for all grades, which are still in use. However, when the Turks retook the fort, they slaughtered everyone in it Usually, the end of the chapter provides review material where students can check their knowledge and skills.

Consequently, more attention is paid to local history. In ninth-grade textbooks the following Methods can be found: According to Lithuanian practices, questions and assignments should help a student review and understand the main points. Besides, istorjjos questions can act as review questions for studying.

Based on French and western models, an attempt was made to use various sources for each topic, including documents, diagrams, maps, and photographs.

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istofijos Innovation in history textbooks means the application of new concepts and methods instead of traditional methods used in older history textbooks. The Church of St.

Furthermore, local history has found a place in textbook assignments. The majority of students preferred computer games and attractively looking assignments rather than studying from this textbook.


Recently, they have attempted to istorjios new methods with the aim of creating appealing history textbooks for students and teachers. These guidelines were very helpful to teachers and enabled them to combine all the material effectively. Foreign political, economic and cultural history is linked to Lithuania. Sincewhen Lithuania regained its independence, history textbooks with new innovative approaches and content have been published.

Lithuania and the World for the eleventh15 and twelfth16 grade. However, some difficulties arose. Teachers use these digital materials quite often and they explain how to use them at home, but they are used more as a supplementary tool.

Some authors explain at the beginning of the chapter what istorkjos will learn and what skills and knowledge they will gain. Until the major innovations and changes occurred within history teaching content, which included new topics and themes, new previously neglected facts and evaluations.

Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas,p. This type of information helps Lithuanians to put their history into a global context. This can be implemented in two ways. Therefore, history textbooks would reflect the ideology of invaders and occupiers. Representation of local history A survey of teachers and students reveals that students are much more interested in istorijjos when the past is linked to their residential area.

Traditional textbooks are based on the old paradigm of teaching, while the innovative textbooks represent the new paradigm in teaching. Secondly, students did not receive enough information and knowledge about the topic from historical sources alone.

The end of every chapter has supplementary istotijos materials. Daily life is portrayed in several ways. Some topics are compulsory for students.